2019-09-15T18:41:26Zhttps://ir.soken.ac.jp/?action=repository_oaipmhoai:ir.soken.ac.jp:000012872018-10-26T05:14:17Z00002:00432:00026
A new method to measure true two-photoncorrelation of soft X-ray synchrotronradiationA new method to measure true two-photoncorrelation of soft X-ray synchrotronradiationenghttp://id.nii.ac.jp/1013/00001287/Thesis or Dissertation〓, 仁忠タイ, レンズンRenzhong, TAI総合研究大学院大学博士（理学）総研大甲第371号1999-03-24Two-photon correlation measurement provides a promising way to experimentally demonstrate the statistical nature of a light source, which is very significant for the deep understanding of the photon-generating process and the diagnosing of the coherence property. Quantitatively two- photon correlation is described by second-order coherence. Usually the behavior of the second-order coherence against any of the parameters <br />defining the phase volume is different for different photon statistics. The Poisson photon statistics for coherent light gives its second-order coherence as a flat response; The Bose-Einstein photon statistics for chaotic light gives its second-order coherence as a bunching effect; While the Sub-Poisson photon statistics for non-classical light gives its second-order coherence as an anti-bunching effect. Therefore the measurement of two-photon correlation is proved to be a good finger print to check whether light is in coherent state or incoherent state such as thermal state or non-classical state.<br />Historically the measurement of two-photon correlation was first performed by Hanbury-Brown and Twiss (HBT) in 1956. They used a linear mixer to realize the correlation of the two currents from the photoelectric detectors illuminated by a stationary thermal light souece, a mercury arc, and the photo-bunching effect was first successfully observed in the visible region of 435.8 nm.<br />HBT method is no doubt a good way to extract the small excess two-photon correlation for a stationary light because the background, that is the DC components, has been cut off automatically by the broad band amplifiers, which is in fact the key of the success of HBT experiment. However there exists a general problem, to which no attention has ever been paid, in measuring the two-photon correlation of non-stationary light such as synchrotron radiation (SR) by the HBT method. Here the "non-stationary" means a sense of classical mechanics that the observed intensity has some deterministic time structure. The systematic time structure of SR decided by the bunch distribution of the electric current in a storage ring will give rise to a large amount of unexpected accidental correlation, which in fact has nothing to do with the inherent photon statistics of light source and usually l000～l0000 times larger than the true two-photon correlation due to the short bunch separation length (2ns) and the short coherence time (～0.1ps) which is not comparable to the time resolution (1ns) of the measuring system. The existence of the accidental correlation would severely prevent us from observing the bunching effect of the true two-photon correlation.<br />Therefore to suppress the much larger accidental correlation and to extract the small true two-photon correlation, a novel intensity interferometer has been developed for soft X-ray synchrotron radiation. This intensity interferometer consists of an optical vacuum chamber and an electric correlator. All the essential optical elements which includes a wire scanner, a precise diffraction slit, a grating monochromator with a coherence time modulator, a beam divider and two fast-response photon detectors (microchannel plates) are mounted in this high vacuum chamber. The electric correlator completes the multiplication of the two broad band electric currents coming from the photoelectric detectors. The basic idea to suppress the much larger accidental correlation is to modulate the coherence time by modulating the entrance slit width of the monochromator by a piezoclectric translator. The two sets of light intensity are simultaneously modulated too. When the frequency of modulation is f, the third harmonics 3f is detected with a loch-in amplifier because the 3f components include only the true two-photon correlation. Practically it is difficult to modulate with frequency f without any higher order harmonics distortion which might add some false 3f components. To overcome this difficulty we have used a sharp bandpass filter of l00～350 MHz in each branch of the correlator, which is lower than the RF frequency 500 MHz and much higher than 1.6 MHz, the revolution frequency of the stored beam of the 2.5 GeV storage ring.<br />This new apparatus has been operated successfully in the measurement of the horizontal two-photon correlation for the first harmonic of undulator radiation with photon energy of 70 eV at the Photon Factory, KEK. By narrowing the precise slit width which correspondingly changes the spatial coherence of the incident SR, a bunching effect of the normalized excess two-photon correlation has been clearly observed. This explicit bunching effect implies that synchrotron radiation is chaotic radiation.<br />Further investigation shows that although second-order coherence is completely determined by the first-order coherence for the case of chaotic light, the measured information from the light source is essentially different. The two-photon correlation of synchrotron radiation does not depend on the response time of the detectors but gives the information of instantaneous emittance of the stored beam with the time scale of coherence time τC. By fitting the experimental data, the horizontal instantaneous emittance of the stored beam is estimated to be 40nmrad.<br />This intensity interferometer can be utilized to characterize the coherence properties of incomplete FELs, such as SASE, because if they are fully coherent light sources the normalized excess two-photon correlation would have a flat response, but not showing a photon-bunching effect.application/pdfhttps://ir.soken.ac.jp/?action=repository_action_common_download&item_id=1287&item_no=1&attribute_id=19&file_no=17CC BY-NC-NDhttps://ir.soken.ac.jp/?action=repository_action_common_download&item_id=1287&item_no=1&attribute_id=19&file_no=18CC BY-NC-ND2010-02-22